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Best practice for academic writing: write and cite or write first?

“Write and cite” is good practice that you should start getting accustomed to early on. The longer the piece you write, the more sources you would have to juggle. Now, imagine there are twenty articles you would be citing, four of them say something relevant to the point you’re making in one single paragraph.

When should you use citation in academic writing?

ALWAYS CITE, in the following cases:

  1. When you quote two or more words verbatim, or even one word if it is used in a way that is unique to the source. …
  2. When you introduce facts that you have found in a source. …
  3. When you paraphrase or summarize ideas, interpretations, or conclusions that you find in a source.

What is the correct order for citing?

Reference List Order

  1. Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author followed by the initials of the author’s given name(s).
  2. When alphabetizing names, disregard any spaces or punctuation marks in two-word surnames. Also disregard anything in parentheses or square brackets.

In which order do you write a list of sources?

A reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author’s surname unless you are using a numeric referencing system. In this case, sources are assigned a number when they first appear in the text, and are listed in numerical order.

Should citations be written in a specific order?

For example, APA style requires that citations be in the same order as they appear in the references list (that would be alphabetical order.) Other styles (e.g. the Council of Science Editors) require that they be given in chronological order.

What comes after the citation?

Short quotations

Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

Do citations without authors go first?

Citing a Work with No Author

If the reference you want to cite has neither an author nor an editor, put the title of the book or article in the author position. Alphabetize such citations according to the first significant word in the title.

How do you write a reference list for academic writing?

Here are the characteristics of a reference list:

  1. It appears at the end of your research paper on a separate page.
  2. Each entry on your list includes the bibliographic information (author, year, title, source) so that your readers can find the sources.
  3. Reference lists are organized alphabetically by author’s last name.

How do you list citations in an essay?

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you list a citation at the end of an essay?

MLA: Parenthetical In-Text Citations

MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence.

How do you start a sentence with a citation?

Spencer (2006) notes that it is acceptable “to state the author’s name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always putting it in the parenthetical citation” (pp. 5-6). A ‘parenthetical’ citation has all of the citation information within parentheses.

How do you order citations in a research paper?

The order is determined by the standard applied by each journal to their publication. In some cases, references are listed alphabetically in the reference list. In this case, the order of appearance of the numbers in the text may seem random (this is equivalent to your cases 2 and 3).

What is MLA citation example?

Using In-text Citation

MLA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

Which citation goes first in APA?

Author information

Reference list citations start with Author information. Since Author information comes first, it is the first component that your readers will identify and therefore needs to tie most directly to the In-text citation. In this regard it is the main identifying component.

How do you do APA style referencing?

APA style uses the author/date method of citation in which the author’s last name and the year of the publication are inserted in the actual text of the paper. It is the style recommended by the American Psychological Association and used in many of the social sciences.

How do you cite in APA 7?


  1. Author or authors. …
  2. Year of publication of the book (in round brackets).
  3. Book title (in italics).
  4. Edition (in round brackets), if other than first edition.
  5. Publisher.
  6. DOI (where a book has a DOI this must be included, even if you are referring to a print book).
  7. The first line of each citation is left adjusted.

Is APA and Harvard referencing the same?

APA referencing is a variant on Harvard style. Many of the conventions are the same, with brief author-date citations in brackets in the body of the text and full citations in the reference list. It is usual to include a reference list only rather than a bibliography in APA style.